International Peace Research Association Japan 2012
Peace-building in Post-conflict/genocide Mozambique and Rwanda- focusing on cleavage in rural communities
Sayaka, FUNADA-CLASSEN (Dr.)
Associate Professor, Tokyo Univ. of Foreign Studies
20 years have past since the war parties signed peace accord in Mozambique and 18 since the end of genocide in Rwanda. The post-conflict/genocide transitional process in both countries has been evaluated positively around the world due to their (internal) “stability” and economic growth. The institutional violence of these two countries was experienced mostly in rural area and severe cleavage was left in local communities. This presentation is to show current status and background of this cleavage basing on the field research conducted in 3 villages in Mozambique (1997-2011) and Rwanda (2009-2011) and primary/secondary sources.
The above research indicates the following 4 results. Firstly, the cleavage was created not only by the last conflict/genocide but also by the historical process of decolonization and cold war. Secondly, the cleavage among community members continues not only because of the internal conflict among the residents, but more so due to the state policy and intervention. Thirdly, the real cleavage exists between the local leaders and those who left the communities rather than among the current local residents. Fourthly, although there are some positive initiatives by the local people for transcending the cleavage, these efforts also tend to be interfered by the states.
The conclusion is that transcending the cleavage in rural communities of Mozambique and Rwanda is still a challenge for peace-building, and the states’ interference is giving deep influence over the local communities. More attention, thus, should be given to the state policy and reality at the local level when the academia and practitioners discuss post-conflict peace-building.